熱詞榜

羅伯特·科赫獎

廣告
廣告
醫學百科提醒您不要相信網上藥品郵購信息!

1 拼音

luó bó tè ·kē hè jiǎng

2 英文參考

Robert Koch Awards

1882年,羅伯特·科赫發現結核菌是醫學史上的一大亮點。這一研究為結核病這種嚴重的傳染病的治療指明了道路。1907年,羅伯特·科赫基金會(Robert Koch Foundation)創立,1960年基金會開始頒發羅伯特·科赫獎(Robert Koch Awards),1970年后頒獎時間改為每年一次,旨在獎勵生物醫學領域,特別是微生物免疫學領域的重大研究進展。科赫獎的部分獲獎者之后也獲得諾貝爾獎,而羅伯特·科赫本人作為微生物學的創始人之一,曾因為發現結核病而榮獲1905年諾貝爾生理學或醫學獎

羅伯特·科赫基金會網址:http://www.robert-koch-stiftung.de/

Robert Koch

3 歷屆羅伯特·科赫獎

3.1 2011年

來自美國耶魯大學醫學院的喬治·格蘭(Jorge Galán)教授因為其“在微生物領域特別是在感染過程中的分子分析方面的基礎研究中,對細胞微生物學這門學科的創建所作出的貢獻”而榮獲該獎,他將得到10萬歐元的獎金;同時,國際人類前沿科學計劃組織(HFSPO)的秘書長厄恩斯特—路德維格·溫納克(Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker)則由于“其所做研究促進了分子生物學基因工程的發展”而被授予2011年度羅伯特·科赫金質獎章(Robert Koch Gold Medal)。

3.2 2010年

Robert Koch Award

Professor Cooper, a fundamental researcher in immunology and infection biology at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, was awarded the Robert Koch Medal and prize money in recognition of his pioneering studies into evolution and development of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates. The immunologist has also made a series of discoveries which contribute to understanding how white blood cells (leukocytes) combat infections in the body and how they degenerate in leukaemia (blood cancer) and lymphomas (cancer of the lymph nodes) and attack the patient’s body in autoimmune diseases. Cooper also laid the foundations for much important progress in illuminating infectious diseases and developing vaccines. 

Currently, Cooper and his team are studying a new class of antibody-like proteins produced by the immune systems of certain fish, the eel-like lamprey and hagfish. The proteins have unique properties, which may be useful in diagnosing and treating infectious diseases in humans.

Robert Koch Gold Medal

In recognition of his life’s work in researching insect immunogenomics, Professor Kafatos of the Chair of Genomics and Immunoregulation at Imperial College in London was awarded the Robert Koch Gold Medal. The scientist was also President of the European Research Council from 2007 to 2010.

By discovering many genes, his research contributed to a better understanding of the immune system of the anopheles species of malaria mosquito. When the mosquito absorbs the plasmodium parasite, which causes malaria, by consuming human blood, the parasite can multiply by deactivating certain genes in the insect, while no multiplication occurs if other genes are deactivated. The objectives of the research include using genetic or chemical processes to deactivate the genes which promote multiplication of the parasites, thus preventing the transmission of malaria.

3.3 2009年

Robert Koch Award

Dr. Nathan, Chairman of Microbiology and Immunology and Professor of Microbiology at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City, USA, has been honored for his groundbreaking research into the mechanisms of antibacterial infection resistance. He was able to show that an inorganic gas, nitrogen monoxide (NO), is formed by activated macrophages and plays a role in defending the body against pathogens.

Although macrophages attack the microbes with chemicals such as NO, tuberculosis bacteria are able to dodge the body’s immune defenses and embed themselves as dormant pathogens in the macrophages. They use mycobacterial metallothionein (MymT), the protein isolated by Dr. Nathan, to act as a barrier against attack by the macrophages. A further discovery made by Dr. Nathan and his team is the enzyme dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (DlaT), which provides the tuberculosis bacteria with energy and also helps to protect them against attack by the immune cells. The scientists are now looking for active substances which inhibit DlaT and can thus destroy pathogens which have entered the body.

Robert Koch Gold Medal

Professor Volker ter Meulen of Würzburg University has been awarded the Robert Koch Gold Medal for his life’s work in investigating the neuronal persistence of viral infections. The virologist is one of the leading researchers in the field of viral infections of the central nervous system. These include diseases such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and infections caused by coronaviruses and simian immunodeficiency viruses. Through his work, Professor ter Meulen was able to show that measles viruses switch off the body’s immune defenses with glycoproteins which inhibit the formation of lymphocytes. This was a pioneering discovery because it revealed a new principle by which the immune system can be suppressed.

Following his career in university research, Professor ter Meulen became president of the renowned Leopoldina in Halle, Germany. Prior to the G8 Summit in Germany in 2007, he invited his counterparts from the participating nations and emerging economies to issue a joint declaration on climate protection. His commitment was rewarded when the Leopoldina was nominatet as Germany’s National Academy of Sciences in 2008.

The Robert Koch Award and Gold Medal, which are presented annually, are among the most prestigious scientific awards in Germany. The foundation, which stands under the patronage of German President Professor Horst Köhler, is dedicated to promoting basic research into infectious diseases and other widespread diseases.

The awards are named after the scientist who was one of the founders of modern bacteriology. Robert Koch (1843 to 1910) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905 in recognition of his achievements. He discovered the anthrax bacillus in 1876 and isolated tuberculosis bacteria in 1882. From 1883 onwards, Koch devoted himself to research into other infectious diseases such as cholera. From 1891 until he retired in 1904, he was Director of the Institute of Infectious Diseases in Berlin.

3.4 2008年

Robert Koch Award 

Professor Schöler, who is Director of the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Biomedicine in Münster, received the prize in recognition of his pioneering research into the isolation, induction and functional analysis of stem cells. His scientific achievements include the discovery of the transcription factor Oct4, which plays a key role in the pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells. This discovery has served as a basis for further research, including his work on cell reprogramming. Professor Schöler was recently able to show that, with the aid of just two genes known as Oct4 und Klf4, adult mouse cells can be returned to a primordial embryonic-like state, with markedly reduced use of viruses. There are many arguments in favor of dispensing with such gene vectors. It would avoid one of the major risks associated with future stem cell therapies, whereby the injected cells develop into tumors. Professor Schöler’s long-term goal is to transform many different somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells and, as a result, to develop a safer therapy for many diseases.

Professor Yamanaka from the Department of Stem Cell Biology at the Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences at the University of Kyoto in Japan, receives the prize for his pioneering research into the induction and functional analysis of pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells. Two years ago, he and his team were the first to succeed in reprogramming mature skin cells from mice. These then acted like embryonic stem cells and were able to form each of the body’s 200 or so different cell types such as nerve cells, muscle cells and cartilage cells. A year later, Professor Yamanaka was able to show that this method also works with human skin cells. His technique was surprisingly simple: the production of pluripotent stem cells required neither eggs nor embryos. The skin cells were reprogrammed into all-rounders simply by inserting four genes, Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4, into their genetic material.

Professor Weissman, who is Director of Cancer/Stem Cell Biology and Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine, USA, received the prize in recognition of his pioneering research into the phylogeny and developmental biology of stem cells of the blood and immune system. Professor Weissman developed a method for isolating stem cells for the hemopoietic system in mice and humans. He also discovered stem cells for nerve tissue, muscles and other organs. Furthermore, Professor Weissman managed to show that a single stem cell can divide into thousands of stem cells that then form many millions of blood cells. He also characterized the surface structure of tumor stem cells. This advance allowed high-level purification of human stem cells, for example the cells of the hemopoietic system. Purification is nowadays indispensable, so that stem cells from healthy donors can be transplanted into leukemia patients. This lowers the incidence of life-threatening side effects and consequently increases therapeutic benefit.

Robert Koch Gold Medal

Professor Philip Leder, of the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School in Boston, USA, received the Robert Koch Gold Medal for his fundamental scientific contributions to modern molecular biomedicine. His name was linked with the deciphering of the genetic code in the early 1960s. In particular, he has made a crucial contribution to modern molecular tumor research. This included the development of the first transgenic mouse to carry a human oncogene in 1984. The OncoMouse, which spontaneously develops breast tumors, constituted a pioneering feat for molecular cancer research and the search for potentially new medicines. In the last few years, Professor Leder has turned his attention to the correlation between oxygen supply and carbohydrate metabolism in tumor cells, which is essential for the growth of cancer cells. This, too, could be used therapeutically in the future.

The Robert Koch Award and Gold Medal, which are awarded annually, are among the most prestigious scientific awards in Germany. The foundation, which stands under the patronage of German President Horst Köhler, is dedicated to promoting basic research into infectious diseases and other widespread diseases. 

The awards are named after the scientist who was one of the founders of modern bacteriology. Robert Koch (1843 to 1910) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905 in recognition of his achievements. He discovered the anthrax bacillus in 1876 and isolated tuberculosis bacteria in 1882. From 1883 onwards, Koch devoted himself to research into other infectious diseases such as cholera. From 1891 until he retired in 1904, he was Director of the Institute of Infectious Diseases in Berlin.

相關文獻

詞條羅伯特·科赫獎ababab创建
參與評價: ()

相關條目:

參與討論
  • 評論總管
    2020/11/30 20:11:26 | #0
    歡迎您對羅伯特·科赫獎進行討論。您發表的觀點可以包括咨詢、探討、質疑、材料補充等學術性的內容。
    我們不歡迎的內容包括政治話題、廣告、垃圾鏈接等。請您參與討論時遵守中國相關法律法規。
抱歉,功能升級中,暫停討論
特別提示:本文內容為開放式編輯模式,僅供初步參考,難免存在疏漏、錯誤等情況,請您核實后再引用。對于用藥、診療等醫學專業內容,建議您直接咨詢醫生,以免錯誤用藥或延誤病情,本站內容不構成對您的任何建議、指導。

本頁最后修訂于 2011年2月24日 星期四 11:22:07 (GMT+08:00)
關于醫學百科 | 隱私政策 | 免責聲明
京ICP備13001845號
互联网药品信息服务资格证书:(京)-非经营性-2018-0290号

京公網安備 11011302001366號